Dengue and Severe Dengue

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that has rapidly spread in all regions of WHO in recent years. Dengue virus is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, Ae. albopictus. These mosquitoes are also vectors of chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. Dengue is widespread throughout the tropics, with local…

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

What is the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)? The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the herpes virus family (human herpes virus 4). EBV is found worldwide and is a common cause of viral pharyngitis, especially in young adults. EBV is transmitted from person to person and then infects human B cells, which in turn spread…

What is TBE virus

What is tick-borne encephalitis? Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a type of viral encephalitis caused by a virus that is spread by ticks. Ticks are small parasites that survive by sucking blood from animals – including humans. Ticks are the main carriers of the virus. The virus is also found in small rodents and some larger…

What is Causes of Flavivirus

The Flaviviridae is a large family of viral pathogens responsible for causing severe disease and mortality in humans and animals. The family consists of three genera: Flavivirus, Pestivirus, and Hepacivirus. The Flavivirus genus, which is the largest of the three, contains more than 70 viruses including Dengue Virus (DV), Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Yellow Fever…

Life Span of Coronavirus

“This virus has the capability for remaining viable for days,” says study author, James Lloyd-Smith, an assistant professor of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of California, Los Angeles, who researches how pathogens emerge. Although the World Health Organization had previously estimated the survival time on surfaces to be a “few hours to a few days” based…

Saint Louis encephalitis

Symptoms Less than 1% of St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLAV) infections are clinically apparent and the vast majority of infections remain diagnosed. The incubation period for SLAV disease (the time from infected mosquito bite to onset of illness) ranges from 5 to 15 days. Onset of illness is usually abrupt, with fever, headache, dizziness, nausea,…

Mosquito-Borne Diseases

Mosquitoes cause more human suffering than any other organism — over one million people worldwide die from mosquito-borne diseases every year. Not only can mosquitoes carry diseases that afflict humans, but they also transmit several diseases and parasites that dogs and horses are very susceptible to. These include dog heartworm, West Nile virus (WNV) and…

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

Key facts The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks. CCHF outbreaks have a case fatality rate of up to 40%. The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks and livestock animals. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of…

Dengue Shock Syndrome

Early recognition and treatment of circulatory volume loss are essential in the clinical management of dengue viral infection. We hypothesized that a novel computational algorithm, originally developed for noninvasive monitoring of blood loss in combat casualties, could: (1) indicate the central volume status of children with dengue during the early stages of “shock”; and (2)…

Human bocavirus

Bocavirus facts Bocavirus are members of the Parvoviridae virus family that are small (20 NM), non-enveloped viruses with single-stranded DNA. Bocavirus is found usually in infants and children who are hospitalized with pneumonia or diarrhea symptoms. Bocavirus is often detected in patients who are infected with other viruses. Although some investigators suspect bocavirus to cause…

How is Herpangina spread

What is herpangina? Herpangina is an acute, self-limited viral illness often seen in young children during the summer months. Affected children usually complain of mouth sores and fever. A number of viruses, all members of the Enterovirus family, cause herpangina. Coxsackievirus, a member of the Enterovirus family, is the most common cause of the infection….

Zoster sine herpete

What is herpes zoster sine herpete? Some cases of VZV reactivation result in a condition known as zoster sine herpete. Patients experience pain and weakness in a dermatology distribution, and a tender, housemasters, unilateral patch or plaque is apparent, but there are no visible signs of cutaneous vesicles. Like typical herpes zoster (shingles), zoster sine…

Respiratory syntactical virus

Respiratory syntactical (sin-HISS-uhf) virus, or RSV, is a common respiratory virus that usually causes mild, cold-like symptoms. Most people recover in a week or two, but RSV can be serious, especially for infants and older adults. In fact, RSV is the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and…

Kyasanur Forest Disease

Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) is a zoonotic disease associated with sudden onset of high-grade fever, prostration, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and occasionally neurological & hemorrhagic manifestations. It derives its name from the forest range where the virus was first isolated. It is also known as “monkey disease/monkey fever” because of its association with monkey deaths. Incidence…

Avian Influenza

Key facts Humans can be infected with avian, swine and other zoonotic influenza viruses, such as avian influenza virus subtypes A(H5N1), A(H7N9), and A(H9N2) and swine influenza virus subtype A(H1N1), A(H1N2) and A(H3N2). Human infections are primarily acquired through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, these viruses have not acquired the ability of…

Lumpy Skin Disease

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a devastating disease of cattle and buffalo caused by a Capri pox virus. It is transmitted between animals by direct contact, via arthropod vectors and iatrogenically. The virus is highly hosted specific and does not cause disease in humans. The disease has never been recorded in Australia, but internationally it has…