In a continuing effort to discover more anti-inflammatory medicinal plants in China, the anti-inflammatory activities of 101 extracts from different parts of 84 traditional medicinal plants were evaluated by a panel of in vitro and in vivo assays. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF) inhibitory effects were determined by luciferase assay in stably transfected Hela cells. Cytotoxic activities were assessed using the MTT assay. Inhibitory effects on LS-induced nitric oxide production and pro inflammatory mediators were assessed by Griefs reaction and Real-Time PCR analysis, respectively. In vivo anti-inflammatory activities were examined by xylene-induced mice ear edema model. In total, 22 extracts showed promising NF-κB inhibitory effects whereas 9 of them did not affect the cell viability. The 9 hit extracts were active in at least one of the subsequently performed in vitro pharmacological test systems. The extract from Hemispherical minor (root) was selected to perform the in vivo study because it demonstrated significant suppressive effects in all the in vitro assays. Results showed that the extract of Hemispherical minor (Root) was able to alleviate ear edema effectively in xylene-induced mice ear edema mode. Collectively, our study provides evidence for the potential anti-inflammatory effects of the medicinal plants traditionally used in China. Further phytochemical and pharmacological studies remain to be clarified.
Inflammation is an adaptive response of body tissues to external challenge or cellular injury. It is generally thought that inflammation is a beneficial host response defense system, but it can become harmful if dysregulated . The complex mediators including pro inflammatory and cytotoxic cytokines, growth factors, bioactive lipids, and nitric oxide in the uncontrolled inflammation reaction can sustain or induce a pathological process involved in different diseases, such as allergy, sepsis, arthritis, the metabolic syndrome, autoimmune diseases, and cancer . The inhibition of inflammatory mediators on the transcriptional level has emerged as a promising approach for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs Nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) plays a key role among the involved transcription factors to regulate various genes involved in immune and acute phase inflammatory responses. The activation of NF-κB induces the transcriptions of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and pro inflammatory cytokines . Therefore, the NF-κB signaling pathway has long been considered the “holy grail” as a target for anti-inflammatory drug
Traditional Chinese medicinal plants work well for many diseases and have been used for centuries in China. Its increasing use in recent years is evidence of a public interest in having alternatives to conventional medicine . A variety of medicinal plants have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, a comprehensive investigation on exploring more anti-inflammatory medicinal plants and their action mode is lacking. In a continuing effort to discover more medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory effects in China, 101 extracts from different parts of 84 TCMs (Table 1) were screened for their potential inhibitory activities on NF-κB activation. In order to further determine their anti-inflammatory activity, the inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) or the NO production induced in LS-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 was investigated. Mouse ear edema assay was used to verify the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the selected plant extracts.
5 Chinese Medicinal Plants You Can Grow At Home
Chinese medicine teaches that the health-promoting compounds in plants can be used to treat imbalance and improve your health. The Chinese medicine classics chronicle thousands of herbs, teas, and foods known and their healing qualities. Here are five medicinal plants you can grow in your backyard, a small kitchen garden, or even indoors.
Bitter Melon Momordica Charantia
Bitter Melon is a strange vegetable that looks like an alien cucumber. It has a memorable mouth-puckering flavor. It is a vine plant, belonging to the Cucurbitaceae family, which includes squash, watermelon, and cucumbers. Bitter melon requires at least three to four months of warm or hot weather to survive. Plant your seeds in holes about half-inch deep, 12 inches apart, two seeds per hole. Plants that can climb a trellis will be easier to pick and less likely to rot than ones that grow along the ground. If you can’t put up a trellis, put down a layer of straw. The fruit will be ready to pick in about 3 months. If it turns from green to yellow and becomes spongy, it is overripe. It can be cooked and eaten (there are many recipes online) or juiced for a more potent dose.
Benefits: Bitter melon contains beta carotene, potassium, calcium, and Vitamins C, B1, B2, and B3. It is used in Chinese medicine to lower blood sugar, and clear liver and stomach heat. It is not recommended for hypoglycemic people, pregnant or nursing women.
Cayenne Pepper Fructus Capsici
Cayenne pepper can be grown as a perennial in warm climates and an annual in temperate climates. Start your seed indoors 2 weeks before the last frost. They can be moved outside and planted 2 feet apart in about 6 weeks (or after all chance of frost has ended). The plants will produce long, dark red fruit four or more inches long in 100 days or so. Some people take Cayene Pepper in pill capsules as a supplement. You also can dry and ground it to powder or flakes or slice it thin and add it to your cooking for an extra punch. Just be sure to wash your hands before you rub your eyes!
Benefits: The pepper contains potassium, manganese, and flavonoids as well as Vitamins C, B6, and E. It is used in Chinese medicine to warm the stomach, improve digestion, and open the meridians. Not recommended for people with Yin deficiencies or those already taking blood thinners. Too much can Cayenne can upset the stomach.
Chinese Yam Dioscorea Opposite
Chinese Yam is another twining vine. The growing season takes about one year, but is well worth the wait. Begin in March or April by planting whole small yams, or 4-5 oz chunks of the tops of larger yams as seed pieces. Plant them 2-3 inches deep and 18 inches apart. Again, supporting the vines with a trellis will have better results. Your yams will produce cinnamon scented flowers between June and September. The vine will produce bulls, which you can eat or save to seed new plants. It is time to harvest when the leaves start to get dry. The tubers will be oblong and straight, and up to 3 feet long and ten pounds each! Chinese Yams have a skin like a potato that should be peeled before cooking and a milky white flesh that becomes soft and flaky when cooked. You can use Chinese Yam in any recipe that calls for mealy potatoes. Unlike other tubers, it can also be eaten raw. I like to shred raw Chinese Yam and season it with vinegar.
Benefits: In Chinese medicine, it is used to strengthen the kidney and spleen. If your hands and feet are cold due to Qi and blood deficiency, chicken and yam soup is a great option. Chinese Yam naturally contains estrogen, and over-consumption may cause hormone imbalance. It may aggravate per-existing constipation.
Chrysanthemum Flos Chrysanthemi Morifolii
Chrysanthemum is a beautiful flower tea. The famous Chinese medicine text, Divine Farmer’s Materia Medica says, “Taken over a long time it facilitates the qi and blood, lightens the body and prevents aging.” You can start your Chrysanthemum from seed indoors 6 weeks before the last frost and then move them outside. They can also be found as seedlings at many garden centers. Look for bushy plants with white or yellow flowers. After the last frost, plant them outside at least 2 feet apart. Chrysanthemum does best in full sun and slightly sandy soil. Your flowers will be ready to harvest in late October. You can pick the flowers and dry them. Or for a beautiful decoration, cut the stems, tie in bunches, and hang to dry (remove the flowers later when dry). Pour hot water over a small handful of flowers, steep for 5 minutes, and enjoy your Chrysanthemum tea. I also like adding goji berries to mine. Note – Chrysanthemum does well as an indoor houseplant, and NASA studies have recorded excellent air-filtering qualities.
Benefits: Chrysanthemum contains volatile oils, amino acids, vitamins and minerals. It is used in Chinese medicine to clear wind and heat and calm the liver. Try a cup of chrysanthemum tea if you are feeling over-heated from sun exposure, or if you have a headache. If your eyes are dry or tired, soak a cloth in chrysanthemum tea and use it as a compress. It is not recommended for those sensitive to low temperatures, or those who have loose bowels or a weak stomach. Chrysanthemum is toxic to dogs and cats.
Jiao GU LAN Gynostemma Pentaphyllum
Jiao GU LAN is a climbing tea herb that grows wild in the mountains of southern China. Start by soaking Jiao GU LAN seeds in warm water for a day before planting them in seedling pots. Placed where they can get partial sun, they will germinate in about a month. Transplant your Jiao GU LAN seedlings 1 foot apart in the early summer. A partially shaded trellis is the best. They prefer a moist location, so it is a good idea to mulch them with compost to help keep the soil damp. Water every 3-5 days. The vine will flower in late summer and will grow rounds seed pods that turn black. Just before the flowers open, harvest the leaves and vine. Cut the vine into hand-sized pieces and put them in a food dehydrator (or dry in the sun) along with the leaves until crisp and completely dry. Store your tea in a jar in a cool, dry place. Note – Jiao GU LAN also does very well as a houseplant or in a hanging basket.
Benefits: Jiao GU LAN is a natural adaptogen. It is used in Chinese medicine to increase energy without over-stimulating, improve memory and focus, and strengthen the immune system. Because of its immune stimulating function, it is not recommended for people with autoimmune disease. It may slow blood clotting, and is not recommended for use before or after surgery or during pregnancy.