The IF function is one of the most used functions in Excel. This page contains many easy to follow IF examples.

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## Simple If Examples

The IF function checks whether a condition is met, and returns one value if true and another value if false.

1a. For example, take a look at the IF function in cell B2 below.

Explanation: if the price is greater than 500, the IF function returns High, else it returns Low.

## 1. The following IF function produces the exact same result.

Note: you can use the following comparison operators: = (equal to), > (greater than), < (less than), >= (greater than or equal to), <= (less than or equal to) and <> (not equal to).

## 2. Always enclose text in double quotation marks.

## 3a. The formula below calculates the progress between two points in time.

## 3. You can use the IF function to display an empty string (“”) if the end value hasn’t been entered yet (see row 5).

Explanation: if the end value is not empty (<> means not equal to), the IF function calculates the progress between the start and end value, else it displays an empty string (“”).

## And/Or Criteria

Use the IF function in combination with the AND function and the OR function and become an Excel expert.

## 1. For example, take a look at the IF function in cell D2 below.

Explanation: the AND function returns TRUE if the first score is greater than or equal to 60 and the second score is greater than or equal to 90, else it returns FALSE. If TRUE, the IF function returns Pass, if FALSE, the IF function returns Fail.

## 2. For example, take a look at the IF function in cell D2 below.

Explanation: the OR function returns TRUE if at least one score is greater than or equal to 60, else it returns FALSE. If TRUE, the IF function returns Pass, if FALSE, the IF function returns Fail.

## 3. For example, take a look at the IF function in cell D2 below.

Explanation: the AND function above has two arguments separated by a comma (Table, Green or Blue). The AND function returns TRUE if Product equals “Table” and Color equals “Green” or “Blue”. If TRUE, the IF function reduces the price by 50%, if FALSE, the IF function reduces the price by 10%.

## Nested If

The IF function in Excel can be nested, when you have multiple conditions to meet. The FALSE value is being replaced by another IF function to make a further test.

## 1. For example, take a look at the nested IF formula in cell C2 below.

Explanation: if the score equals 1, the nested IF formula returns Bad, if the score equals 2, the nested IF formula returns Good, if the score equals 3, the nested IF formula returns Excellent, else it returns Not Valid. If you have Excel 2016 or later, simply use the IFS function.

## 2. For example, take a look at the nested IF formula in cell C2 below.

Explanation: if the score is less than 60, the nested IF formula returns F, if the score is greater than or equal to 60 and less than 70, the formula returns D, if the score is greater than or equal to 70 and less than 80, the formula returns C, if the score is greater than or equal to 80 and less than 90, the formula returns B, else it returns A.

## Things to remember about the IF Function

- The Excel IF function will work if the logical_test returns a numeric value. In such a case, any non-zero value is treated as TRUE and zero is treated as FALSE.
- #VALUE! error – Occurs when the given logical_test argument cannot be evaluated as TRUE or FALSE.
- When any of the arguments are provided to the function as arrays, the IF function will evaluate every element of the array.
- If we wish to count conditions, we should use the COUNTIF and COUNTIFS functions.
- If we wish to add up conditions, we should use the SUMIF and SUMIFS functions.

## Reasons to use an Excel IF Statement

There are many reasons why an analyst or anyone who uses Excel would want to build IF formulas.

**Common examples include:**

- To test if an argument is true or false
- To output a NUMBER
- To output some TEXT
- To generate a conditional formula (e.g., the result is C3+B4 if true and N9-E5 if false)
- To create scenarios to be used in financial modeling
- To calculate a debt schedule or a fixed asset depreciation schedule in accounting