Clinically severe obesity, which individuals sometimes call morbid obesity, can increase the danger of a variety of other health issues.
For an adult, having clinically severe, or class 3, obesity involves having a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or above trusted Source and a high percentage of body fat.
BMI isn’t a diagnostic tool, but it can indicate the danger of developing various health issues.
Having severe obesity can make it difficult to try to do everyday activities, like walking, breathing, and sleeping. It also can increase the danger of the disorder, type 2 diabetes, and various other health conditions.
According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, around 1 in 13 people within us had severe obesity in 2013–2014.
Below, learn more about what clinically severe obesity is and which treatments are available.
What is morbid obesity?
When an adult has severe obesity, they need a high percentage of body fat and a BMI of 40 or aboveTrusted Source. BMI may be a scale that helps medical professionals tell whether an individual features a risk of developing certain health conditions.
The following chartTrusted Source shows different classifications of BMI:
|18.5 to less than 25||Moderate weight|
|25 to less than 30||Overweight|
|30 to less than 35||Class 1 obesity|
|35 to less than 40||Class 2 obesity|
|Above 40||Class 3 obesity|
Here, find a BMI calculator and more information about BMI.
A person with obesity features a greater risk of a heart condition and other conditions. the upper the category of obesity, the greater the likelihood of developing these complications.
However, it’s worth noting that a person’s BMI doesn’t necessarily indicate whether or not they have a healthy weight. It doesn’t reflect the share of muscle mass compared with the share of fat within the body.
How useful is BMI as a tool for measuring weight and health?
Checking a person’s waist-to-hip ratio and therefore distributing fat in their body can provide a better idea of their risk of developing complications. Scientists have linked a high waist circumference thanks to body fat with a greater riskTrusted Source of disorder.
Certain factors can influence the risk trusted Source of developing any class of obesity. For example:
- Dietary habits and activity levels can affect a person’s levels of energy.
- Socioeconomic conditions can limit access to fresh foods and therefore the ability to exercise.
- Genetic factors may play a task .
- Family history may contribute, through both genetic and environmental factors.
- Some medical conditions have links with obesity, including Cushing’s syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome.
- Stress and anxiety can increase levelsTrusted Source of the hormone cortisol, which may affect fat storage and weight gain.
- A lack of sleep may contribute.
The authors of a 2017 review of studies from around the world suggest that the subsequent social factors, among others, may play a role:
- stress thanks to trauma, relationship problems, financial difficulties, or a mixture
- levels of health and dietary awareness
- workplace settings, including working hours and therefore the likelihood of eating takeout
- access to and availability of healthy food
- access to green space and other considerations involving urban living and activity levels
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obesity affects around 49.6%Trusted Source of Black people, 44.8% of Hispanic people, and 42.2% of the White race within the U.S.
However, a 2017 surveyTrusted Source published by CDC reveals a more nuanced picture, indicating that the prevalence of obesity varies consistent with combinations of things like education level, income, gender, and race. The relationships among these factors appear to be complex.
Symptoms and signs
A person with obesity may experience:
- joint and back pain
- difficulty breathing
- sleep problems, including snoring
- difficulty with physical activity
- low confidence and feelings of isolation
- high vital sign and other symptoms of metabolic syndrome
- symptoms of other complications, which we describe below
Indications of severe obesity include:
- a high buildup of fat round the body
- a BMI of 40 or aboveTrusted Source
- signs of complications, like hypertension
The complications of obesity can include trusted Source:
- metabolic syndrome, which incorporates type 2 diabetes, high vital sign , and other features
- high levels of “bad” cholesterol and low levels of “good” cholesterol
- high levels of triglycerides
- heart disease
- gallbladder disease
- sleep apnea and other breathing problems
- mental health conditions, like depression and anxiety
- some cancers
- body pain
- difficulty with daily functions and activities
- a higher riskTrusted Source of hospitalization thanks to COVID-19, especially among Hispanic and Black Americans
These conditions can affect a person’s anticipation and quality of life.
If an individual visits their doctor with concerns about their weight or BMI, the doctor will likely:
- measure their weight and height to verify their BMI
- ask about dietary and exercise habits
- consider the person’s individual and family medical histories
- do blood tests to seem for health conditions which will underlie obesity
- test for complications which will need medical attention, like high vital sign
If an individual has severe obesity or complications concerning it, a doctor may:
- recommend an appropriate weight loss plan
- work with the person to develop an exercise plan
- recommend a physiotherapy plan if the person has limited mobility
- prescribe medication, like orlistat (Alli), which reduces the quantity of fat that the body absorbs
- recommend bariatric surgery, if other options don’t help
- address any complications, like type 2 diabetes and other features of metabolic syndrome
A person should work with their doctor or a nutritionist to develop an appropriate plan and follow the instructions carefully. Losing weight too rapidly or starting vigorous exercise too quickly can have negative effects.
Also, various weight loss drugs are available online, but they’ll not be safe or effective.
If other options don’t help, the doctor may recommend surgery. a number of these procedures include:
- gastric banding, during which a surgeon places a hoop round the stomach, limiting the quantity of food which will enter
- gastric bypass, which aims to extend the sensation of fullness and cause the absorption of fewer calories
- sleeve gastrectomy, during which the surgeon removes a part of the stomach
- intragastric balloon, a short lived measure during which the surgeon places a balloon within the stomach to require up space
If an individual loses a big amount of weight, they’ll have unwanted folds of skin. Surgery also can address this.
Find out more about treatments for obesity.
There are no single thanks to reducing or prevent weight gain. the simplest option will depend upon the individual. However, dietary strategies and exercise can help.
Dietary tips can include:
- consuming many fresh fruits and vegetables
- favoring whole or unprocessed foods
- avoiding trans fats and saturated fats and choosing healthy fats, like from safflower or corn oils
- limiting the intake of sugar and sweetened foods
- monitoring the caloric intake, if a healthcare professional recommends this
- using a smaller plateTrusted Source
- eating only at regular times
- eating more slowlyTrusted Source
- avoiding triggers and habits that cause overeating, like having some cake with coffee at break times
Current guidelines recommend that, when possible, adults get a minimum of 150 minutes of trusted Source of moderate-intensity activity every week. this might include walking, swimming, or cycling, for instance . it’d involve 10-minute sessions several times each day on most days of the week.
A doctor can advise about what proportion and what sort of exercise an individual should do, counting on their overall